Additional Resources

The following are links to external sources of videos, websites, animations, etc. that may be helpful in your studies of certain topics in anatomy and physiology. Please note that these resources have been screened for accuracy, but the information may be presented in less or more detail than your lecture instructor requires. Comments following the links include the opinions of Professor Geller after screening them.

Always consult your instructor if you have any questions. Please email Dr. Geller at for any comments, broken links, concerns, etc.

Cell videos:

Cilia movement:

Transcription (NOT closed captioned*): - overview of cells (both eukaryotic & prokaryotic) and the common features/organelles 

 Membrane transport:

Cell Membrane Transport - Transport Across A Membrane - How Do Things Move Across A Cell Membrane:  Published by Whats Up Dude, Jan 15, 2018. Straightforward animations and discussion on passive transport (diffusion, facilitated diffusion (channel/carrier mediated) and osmosis) and active processes (active transport (primary and secondary) and vesicular transport). - Multiple videos created by Wendy Riggs, Biology Professor at College of the Redwoods, for her "flipped" class in physiology. These topics are related to the structure of the cell membrane and transport. - Simplified video of types of movement across a cell membrane with cute animations by the Amoeba Sisters.

Ossification: Video of difference between intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Overview of bone growth in length (interstitial) and width (appositional).

Joint movements: My video of major joints in the body and the movements that occur at each.

Introduction to Anatomy – Movement:  Thefunkyprofessor Oct 28 2015, - Doesn’t go through all joints but most of them with descriptions and model who is a ballet dancer

Joints: Crash course A&P #20:  May 26, 2015. Overview of skeleton, joint classification and primary body movements (but not detailed specifically for each joint).

Anatomical Movements Rap (Buzzin remix):  JustDrew131 Feb 27, 2012. It’s a rap, enough said 😉

Skeletal muscle contraction: – Excellent animation and description from McGraw Hill - Animation of the contraction cycle occuring between myosin and actin (not closed-captioned but there is a written text of the verbal description) – Old interactive physiology animations that have been transferred to YouTube. Covers the molecular components of the thick and thin myofilaments (approx. 8 min), a single cross bridge cycle broken into 6 steps (~8-14 min), multiple cross bridge cycling (~14-18 min). Good info but sound doesn’t line up well with what is happening on the screen

Crash Course A&P #21 Muscle Cells:  Covers Skeletal muscle anatomy, sliding filament mechanism (sliding filament model)

Crash Course A&P #22 Muscles Organismal level:  Covers concepts of origin & insertion, agonist/antagonist/synergist, motor units, graded muscle response. Would be good to watch before muscle lab (along with my Articular Movements of the Skeleton video)

Crash course Biology #31 Big Guns: Muscular system: Pretty good overview but not as detailed as the A&P one. Good historical overview of the discovery of the sliding filament mechanism discovered by two different teams of researchers in 1954

It's Exciting! It's Excitation-Contraction Coupling! : The PenguinProf. Goes into more detail of the molecular biol of the different receptors present in the motor end plate, T tubule and SR. Probably better for bio 235 (physiology) than bio 160 good simple animated overview of AP leading to release of calcium and resulting sliding filament movement. *NOT closed captioned*

Neuromuscular junction:

Neuromuscular Junction (Anatomical Structure): Events at NM junction broken down into seven steps. Old Pearson Education video (© 2009). Published on YouTube by Dr. Larry Ward, Sep 17, 2013 - overview of neuromuscular junction in less than two minutes 

Neuromuscular Junction Process in Skeletal muscle From Human Anatomy & Physiology. Pretty good information but music is a little obnoxious (IMHO) and the voice and animation of the avatar is very robot like.  - good overview of synaptic transmission but NOT closed-captioned

Action Potentials in Neurons: - overview of the concept of membrane potential in neurons due to differences in ion concentrations. - overview of action potential occuring in neurons

Action Potential in the Neuron, Harvard Extension School:   Good basic animations of membrane separating charges (ions), with description of the different kinds of ion channels (leak, ligand gated, voltage gated, mechanically gated). Also mentions relative versus absolute refractory periods. “Licensed for reuse under CC by NC-ND 4.0 (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public License)

The Action Potential, Bozeman Science, Paul Anderson:  Jan 23, 2017. Good explanation of establishment of resting potential, Action potential and graded potentials, as well as establishment of graded potentials being due to integration of additional signals coming into dendrites & cell body affection membrane potential.

Blood flow through the heart: - Overview of blood flow through the heart. NOT closed captioned. Only shows one side at a time which can be misleading for students to understand that blood circulation occurs bilaterally and symmetrically. - Another overview of blood flow through heart (not captioned)

Cardiac muscle cell contraction:

Cardiac Action Potential, Animation, Alila Medical Media:   Jan 24, 2017. Good detail showing differences in action potentials in pacemaker vs contractile myocytes

Immunology: - good overview of cell mediated immunity (no closed-captions) - good overview of antibody mediated immunity (no closed-captions)  U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIH, Publication No. 03-5423 September 2003. Pretty detailed overview of immune function in a PDF pamphlet.

HHMI (Howard Hughes Medical Institute) Cells of the Immune System.   Overview of T & B cells in the immune system

Openstax: - Openstax Anatomy & Physiology ebook. Not to be used as replacement for required textbook but as an additional source of information, including chapter questions at the end of chapters. Unless otherwise noted, all content on Open Oregon Educational Resources is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

KenHub:  - Online anatomy tutorials, videos an quizzes. Free registration. Many may be more detailed than might be needed at this level (better for bio 230 (Anatomy) than bio 160) but professionally created and accurate.

Miscellaneous: – many links to video animations that have simple animations and explanations for some processes (ie. Synaptic transmission, Action potential conduction (explaining changes that occur in voltage controlled Na gates, etc.) Biggest problem is that none are closed captioned.